Thursday, December 5, 2013

SlideSpeech - the void it fills.....

Short but sweet entry of learning.  I'm so happy how it turned out with my students!

Some students don't like to present in front of a group, some have a lot to say but get nervous.  Here's an alternative that a friend of mine showed me this summer and I used in our final presentation of photoshop for my Gr. 9/10 students.  You create a PowerPoint like you normally do, but what ever you type in the note section is what is read in SlideSpeech.  You get to chose what voice you want (accent) and you can invite the teacher to see it (even embed it in an electronic portfolio for those of you doing that).  The students have to think about the picture they have put up on the powerpoint, consider what they have learned (critical thinking and reflection), and the best part, it's free!!!!

Here's an example: 

Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Genius Hour - how it's working.

This summer I participated in a MOOC on Genius Hour, what this is, the benefits of 2 Percent Time and how to incorporate it in your classroom.  I learned so much, and the support for trying this ingenious idea was tremendous.  Basically, the premise is this 20 Percent Time worked so well for Google, other corporations tried it with success, and this premise was brought forward to students.  The idea is that students choose what they want to learn every Friday.  They come up with a plan of what they want to do (project based learning, planning skills, task making, etc), go forward with it (lifetime learning skills to find what information they need and verify that the information is valid), and then present their findings to an audience (learning justifying their opinions, presentational skills, etc).  To understand the success of this means of learning see the video below.

There have been many resources that are great, one particular great site is the Genius Hour Wiki by Gallit Zvi (@gallit_z), Denise Krebs (@mrsdkrebs) and Joy Kirr (@JoyKir).  The second resource that you need to live by is also by Joy Kirr, her livebinder on Genius Hour.  But doing the MOOC was excellent in gathering up a number of ideas and resources from everyone.  One particularily good resource was a video online that was made to show presentations of genius hour.  They do not show the entire presentations, what is more powerful is how many students stated that their projects failed, but they still learned from their projects.  This is the  genius hour videos to students can see that it's the learning process that's more important than the final results.

So what did I do?  I created a sequential course for my students to follow, with all learning resources that I want to use  (thanks to many others that have started the process and share online) -  click here.  The first videos really motivated the students - "Try it for 30 days" - to start their work, but even better, was ideas started pouring in quickly. The proposals for genius hour have started to develop, we're working through that process as I write.  And I thought I would start to share a few their ideas and answering specific questions that need to be discussed in a later blog.  

This will be my journey of learning with my students, to reflect on what my genius hour will be like, what I need to learn, and what I'll be changing when some things don't work. 

As I told my students, it's not failure if you learn from your mistakes.

Writing a paperless newspaper using Blogger and

We use to create a student newspaper once a semester, but the cost of coloured ink was extraordinary, and setting up the newspaper in InDesign was basically done by the teacher supervising, not the students. So when I had a couple of students asking if they could do a newspaper last year I said sure but lets make some changes.

First, I wanted it to be electronic, so there would not be so much paper wasted.  I considered PDF files to load on our school site, but the first year we tried this there were a few problems with space and uploading so I gave up that idea.

We started out with 15 students participating, then went down to four at the end of the term, probably due in part to the need for students to write at least an article every 2 week. The students were not very motivated to write because of no "instant gratification"; when they published I or another teacher (an english teacher as you can well imagine why with the way I have written this blog) needed to make certain that what was written was appropriate for representation of our school, as well as was written with proper english skills.  This slowed down the publishing of the paper, and squashed the instant motivation of seeing your articles in a paper.  Another problem.

In the end we have published only 2 papers that year and the newspaper club retired.

Last year we tried twitter and blogger accounts.I had asked students to set up blogger accounts so I could connect with them using a blog roll to verify their work. This made it easy for commenting on their pages for any changes needed.   Each student had a twitter account and we communicated that way as well.  We had students copying and pasting blog entries to make a paper using InDesign (I taught two students how to use the program), and then we saved it as a PDF for the web site.  As I stated previously there were some problems and a few things learned along the way.  But blogging and twitter worked great when we used for our publishing.  

This year another group of students came asking if they could do a school newspaper and once more I said "OK, but here's what we learned last time..."    So this year we started with blogging right away and using immediately. has many advantages and disadvantages.  

  • free
  • does the publishing for you when you set it up.
  • Can have people following through emails.
  • You can get videos in it.
  • The Editor in Chief (a student) sets up the account and controls it.
  • Sometimes you have trouble with publishing the paper if you have a template that is dynamic.
  • The paper gets published and then you verify it, so you need to quickly check all material and then tweet it out.
This year we use and the publication is automatic.  We're into our third paper (with the free version the paper is published once a week) and so far we've had 4 - 8 articles a paper.  Reporting is exceptional, and I'm quite pleased with the start up.  

We have an editor in chief (a student) who motivates the troops, ask them to cover certain areas of what is happening, encourages others to come up with ideas, and even though we are working through some pumps ( will not grab the rss feed of some of the fancier template blogs), the students are not discourages, and it's beginning to be tweeted out to the world as well as our school.

There are still things to do, still some problems to work out, but really, as in anything new, we're working through them one at a time.

This paper is written by students in our school.  Please check it out and leave a comment if you like.  Spelling mistakes are being taken care of ;)

Monday, August 5, 2013

What is "Mastering a Skill"?

In education today many teachers are letting students learn at their own speed or their own skill level, letting them stay behind, until they master a skill, and letting others move on quicker when they learned the material, so they may be challenged with the next area of learning.

The amount and time and effort it takes reach mastery varies according to the complexity of the skill.  But exactly is mastery?  According to Dictionary Reference a master is:
A person eminently skilled in something, as an occupation, art or science, a person whose teachings others accept or follow; a Zen master.  the great masters of the Impressionist period.  
The Provincial Government states in their PLO (Learning objectives) that the student must learn these specific skills or these specific items of knowledge.  In my field of teaching (computers) I teach a skill.  Mastering a skill requires both theory and practice.  Theory is important, because if you're all about the "doing," you'll waste energy doing the wrong things.  And practice is important because it reinforces learning.   But most important of all is having the students recognize and want to learn the skill.

There are levels of learning in each of these fields (theory and practise).  In the theory section the students can be tracked at these following levels:  
  • Unawareness: You are unaware that there is a skill to be learned.
  • Awareness:  You realize you need to learn that skill.
  • Clarification:  You understand what you need to do differently.
These stages show when the student is willing to learn and has looked into the learning.

In the next stage of learning is the practice side, the repetition of learning this skill until it becomes natural to you.  This is also in stages.  These stages are simplified but can be changed for any teacher.
  • Awkwardness:  You attempt the new skill and find it difficult.  You need support.
  • Familiarity:  The new skill is easier to do but still not automatic.  You need to refer to previous learning.
  • Automatic:   You no longer need to think how to do the skill, it just comes naturally. 
It's when you reach that sixth stage listed above that you have mastered a skill.  Up until that point, this skill requires requires constant and consistent practice (usage). After that point, however, the skill is automatic, like riding a bike.  You may get a bit rusty, but the skill is always there for you to draw upon.  When rusty, practise and relearning will bring back the skill once more.

The reason I have been considering this is to understand a rating system (not so much as a marking system) for students to learn the skills I want them to learn.  Both they and I need to understand when they are proficient in a skill and when they have mastered it to the level of being able to teach another student (something needed when doing differentiation in a classroom of 30 students and 6 different choices of learning.

But there is something else to consider when talking to students about mastering a skill.  The biggest thing that we as teachers need to do is to reinforce the learning with positive reinforcement.

I know the video below is not an educational video but it is an excellent and simple example of how the human brain works when trying to master a skill.  You guess the skill and as a teacher, consider what is being learned, not by exemplifying, or reading, or instructing, but by simple trial and error and you'll see that the motivation is there, and in the end the reward of the finish project is show great appreciation.  View this video with the eyes of a teacher and see what we've forgotten in the learning process of a child.  The two things mentioned above has no age barriers where the need for passion in learning, the need for reinforcement, and the celebration of learning ever dies.   

I need to show my students this video so they understand the concept of learning, that with trial and error, and with practise, they too can accomplish a skill.  Why is this important?  Well after doing the MOOC in Genius Hour, I believe this is a consideration for the the students, to understand that they may not meet their expectations, but it takes time and practise to master what they want to master. This is what I need to think more about for the Genius Hour in my Information Technology 11/12 Classroom.

Just my two cents  ;)

    Thursday, August 1, 2013

    A Summer of Continued learning

    It's only been a month since we've been off school, to relax and like most teachers I've taken a vacation, gone somewhere and tried to unwind.  But also, like most teachers, I've been doing some learning to keep myself up to par, to strive, as always, to be my best for the students.  That means learning new programs (we've moved from CS4 to CS6 and take my word for it, it's very different), but also learning new methods of teaching or building the "passion for learning" for my students.  

    A friend of mine talked me into taking a MOOC in the first month of school off.  What does MOOC stand for?  According to Wikipedia it stands for
    "A massive open online course (MOOC) is an online course aimed at large-scale interactive participation and open access via the web. In addition to traditional course materials such as videos, readings, and problem sets, MOOCs provide interactive user forums that help build a community for the students, professors, and teaching assistants"

    The MOOC is on Genius Hour, how it works, things to consider, the principles behind Genius Hours, and so much more.  There is a sharing of information, material, and networking.   This program lasted 4 weeks, with myself working on a Genius Hour Project, adding Genius Hour to my Information Technology 11/12 classroom.

    But that's not where the learning ends.  I'm also reading "Flip your Classroom - Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day" by JOnathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams, the gentlemen who started this practise and have been gracious enough to share their learning and the learning of others while following this understanding.  

    This is a podcast of Alan November interviewing the authors, chemistry teachers from Woodland Park, CO, discussing their  models of flipped learning.  To learning more go to this link or network at the Flipped Learning Network.

    Here is the designers of Flipping your Classroom and Mastering Flipped Classrooms.

    Learn with me.  Differentiation is where it's at.

    Does this seem like a person on holidays?  I've been redesigning my courses that are online because I differentiate in my classroom, teaching 5 subjects at once, at different levels of learning, doing Adobe CS6 programs, as well as animation and movie making.  I do nothing but answer questions to what they are learning online, probe and prode for students to learn more, and continually demand for the kids to add to their e-portfolios, explaining what they have learned or not learning, and what has happened today in school.

    What is it about the educational profession that we continue to learn even when we're on holidays?  I firmly believe that our passion in learning ignites the student's passion in learning and once that flame is lighted, you cannot turn it off.

    Wednesday, May 8, 2013

    Starting classes with Grade 8 students in a four week time period.

    Every grade 8 student that goes through Information Technology Grade 8 class (a 4 week period of time) gets trained in specific things in our school to start them on their journey of their Digital Persona.  They learn how to use Outlook since this is the email that they receive from the district, they learn their user name and password and how to save and protect their data on the server (since where ever they move in the district, this user name, password and all files will follow them) and they learn to be safe online.

    Through the process of all of this, they learn a number of software program and web tools that we feel is important for them to learn and useful in their time period that they will be in our school.  The main one is Prezi, an online tool that can also operate offline, and you can brainstorm online using their apps.   The intro to our class and to learning more about the students quickly in the four week period is for the student to do a Prezi of their life.  Below is one small example, but a good one.

    There are a number of help/support files and videos.  
    The program itself has a number of videos that teach students how to use Prezi, but I show the basics like :
    • Select your background
    • Change your background
    • inserting text
      • change color
      • change font
      • change size
    • inserting pictures
      • rotating pictures
      • changing size
    • inserting movies
      • 2 different ways - by youtube address and by uploading
    • zooming in and out of words, and pictures
    • using frames
    • inserting arrows, etc
    • making a path
    • put a very small word in a word
    • adding music at the end
    Students love to do this, learn something new, and I give them a bonus if they teach another student or even better, a teacher in the school.  That seems to work great.  But that's just the start.

    We also
    • use Inspiration for brainstorming and organizing
    • Use different avatars so they understand their digital footprint.
    • Look at real teens talking about what has happened to them when going to far with chats and others,
    • I show them google satellite and how it can zoom right in to look in your window or what's in the garage to steal.
    • They learn how someone can get your phone number and address.
    • Talk about Facebook security.
    • Talk about rules for safety.  They use the web tool "Toondoo" for this making a comic book.  Here's an example:  

    • They learn about the start of competitions of computers with bibliographies of Gates and Jobs.
    • They do some fun web tools that we talk about their usage like
      • MyOats
      • Wordle
      • Tagxedo
      • TimeRhyme
      • and blogs.
    These are but a few things we do in 4 weeks, making the class fun, but informative, and with the specific purpose of starting our students safely on computers and on the Internet.  Hope you enjoyed this.

    Sunday, May 5, 2013

    Googlize your Classroom

    One of the more important things in education that I believe in is the strength of building networks with your colleagues and sharing the material you have learned. That's why I believe in helping others, doing training and when asked, helping present at the Surrey Teacher's Association Conference the past Friday.  If you are in SurreySchool District and wish to access all of this material and more (handouts on how to do), please email me and tell me your email address.  Through I am sharing all this material and more in the "Group Share"

    Presentation 1 - Googlize Your Classroom.

    AT the STA conference on Friday, May 3rd, I presented two presentations that I would like to share.  The first being a presentation, or rather a showing of all the different educational things that Google can be used for.  Many of their sites are educationally sound, with lesson plans included, and resources for both teachers and students.  I'm talking more then just googledocs.  See the presentation below of all they can do.

    1 googlepresentation2 from Nicole Painchaud

    The slideshow above does have two movies that are shown below as links.

    Google Stories

    Example of a SearchStory

    What is Google+

    My Second Presentation - Business Education Links

    It's exactly how it sounds.  I shared material that I had gathered up for Business Education teachers to share in their classroom.  I shared some of the material in the first session but more.  I explained how I used LiveBinder, and created a binder for others to copy and build.  I explained about teaching students to use GoogleDocs and use StormBoard for idea generating, explaining to students that there is no such thing as a stupid idea, that everything is possible, that sometimes the wildest ideas can help develop some innovative ideas to develop improvements in a product.  See the video below for an example.

    Next you have to teach your students how to work in groups and give good feedback.  The video below is about Ron Berger's elementary class and how to give good feedback, or rather positive critiquing.  Excellent to show your students ahead of time so they understand the importance of feedback.  Hope this helps someone out there  ;)

    Below is the binder I started on Business Education links for teaching students business and more. Please feel free to copy it in Livebinder.  I only ask that if you have a few good sites to share that you email me and let me add them to my LiveBinder.  I hope this blog entry helps someone out there :)

    Thursday, May 2, 2013

    Guest Blogger - H. Nielsen - Poetry and Technology Together.

    Recently Sullivan Heights had the opportunity to participate in the Poetry In Voice National Poetry Competition.  For me, this meant learning how to use some new technology, as the entries had to be submitted on line.  This made me a bit nervous, but I had three very keen and talented students who really wanted to compete, and they assured me they had a friend who could help with the tech. stuff if we needed it, so we decided to give it a try.

    Each student had to memorize three poems to performance quality, and then we had to record them from the waist up against a solid background.  The contest stipulated that we were not allowed to do any editing of the recording and stressed the importance of good sound and picture quality.  We solicited the help of a student to film the girls - she did so using the IPad and a camera.  We had to do several takes to get the sound quality where we wanted it, and found that the IPad produced the better video.  

    After gathering all the video, which was way more time consuming than we thought it would be - luckily we gave ourselves a couple of days - it was time to upload the video clips to the site.  This was the scariest part for me, as I had never done anything like this before.  Luckily our tech. facilitator was excited to help, and with her expertise and the clear directions provided by the Poetry in Voice website, we were able to upload the videos with very little difficulty.  It only took about an hour, much less time than I had assumed, and it was much easier than I thought it would be.  The whole experience was a good learning opportunity, and definitely something I would repeat in the future.

    Thank you Ms. Nielsen for sharing your learning experience.

    Wednesday, May 1, 2013

    Livebinder for Collaboration

    I've made a number of binders that I use for sharing sites.  I use Livebinder for a list of web site that I use with BASE students, making it easier to go from one site to another with a click of a button.  It also helps me to organize the sites for different areas of study I do with BASE students.

    I also have created a site of useful links for Business Education teachers.  I needed to organize these sites to show to a group of teachers that teach Business Education at the Surrey Teacher's Association Convention in Surrey BC.  Here is what the binder looks like.  It's open for everyone. If there is one thing to say about Sullivan Heights Teachers (the school I teach at) is that we believe in sharing.

    Check out it's simplicity. for livebinder for Business Ed.

    How to use Livebinder - tutorials.

    Project Based Learning - Guest Bloggers Ann Harris & Stacy Brine

    Earlier this semester, my colleague Ann Harris and I embarked on an attempt at project-based learning
    with our Social Studies 9 classes.  Nicole had presented a wonderful explanation during a recent Professional Day that inspired me to think about adapting a current project I already used.  Nicole's presentation was full of templates and ideas that could be directly applied to a variety of courses and topics.   

    So, in collaboration with Ann, we adapted the First Nations project.  We did some KWL charts and brainstorming ahead of time.  Technology played a major role as the students were to be using the i
    Pads and presenting with Prezi.  We added an essential question to guide the students in order keep the larger issues present in their minds; the students were required to address this essential question throughout their presentation.  And we really wanted the presentation to be much more dynamic; where the students would not be reading their notes, but rather using what was in their Prezi to guide them.  We expected them to truly know the material and speak confidently about it.  And since we had required them to present in the first person - as though they were actually there studying these First Nations groups - we hoped they would be comfortable with the information and be able to engage the class.      

    Ann and I acted as advisors, having students fill out work reports along the way to maintain accountability.  The reports included a group contract, a project management log, individual and group work reports, and self-reflection.  Thankfully, all of these had been provided by Nicole during the Pro-D.  Even though this created extra paperwork and organization on our part, I found it to be very worthwhile in assessing the students.  It was straightforward and kept students on track as they moved through the project.  It kept them accountable to each other as well and didn't allow anyone to get away with doing little work and then receiving the same amount of credit as the other group members.           

    Here's what actually happened:

    1. The research went well.  Our teacher-librarian, Roger Hayward, prepped the students in the library with a presentation on how Prezi works and how the students were able to share and work on the Prezi from different locations.  The students took the job seriously and filled out their work reports along the way.   
    2. The presentations were a disappointment.  Both Ann and I observed that there appeared to be a real disconnect; many students simply read off their notes during the presentation even though we had specified that was not acceptable.  Upon reflection, Ann and I hypothesized that there could be many factors at play: the students were uncomfortable because they didn't know the material well, they were  uncomfortable speaking in front of the class or perhaps students were simply doing what they were used to doing during presentations.  Reading off of cue cards was obviously something that was acceptable throughout their school career.  Our solution: specify to the students that they may not use any notes during the presentations.  Instead, they would be required to speak about their content by using their images chosen and/or a few points to help them along.  And most importantly, we would have the students actually rehearse the presentations ahead of time.  Students would be required to rehearse using the pictures they had selected with no notes.  Ann did this when she did a similar project with her Socials 8 class after we did the project with our grade 9s.  She found that it helped greatly. 
    3. The feedback from the self-reflections was generally positive.  Many students wanted more time to prepare for the presentations.  Some still complained about a lack of effort from some group members and felt as though they did the majority of the work.  This was an issue us when deciding on how to assess the students.  I varied the assessment and in some instances, gave individual marks for work done, while Ann gave a group mark only.
    4. My students often failed to address the essential question about how geography, climate and natural resources affect the way people live.  They seemed to stick with their given topic and not go back to the big picture.  In the future, I would provide more support and guidance around this.  The students are used to a certain pattern and structure around presentations and it seems they weren't able to break from the mold. 

    All in all, it was a worthwhile experience.  In the future, Ann and I agreed it was best to keep the topics . specific.  When Ann tried this format with her grade 8 class, their topics were 'Ancient Civilizations' and it was much too broad.  Keeping the students focused is the key and allowing them the time to practice in order to meet the expectations of the presentation is critical.  I know I took for granted that the students understood what a 'good' presentation looked like.  Engaging the students in setting the criteria for an engaging presentation would have been helpful.  Ann also felt there are many applications for individual students to do Prezis on their own.  Since the group project, she has assigned a Prezi to students to present on their own.    And, as always, practice is key for the process as well; the more the students work through project-based learning, the better they will get at it.  And the same goes for us teachers.

    Thank you ladies for working so hard for our students

    Innovation Grant - What our Departments are Working on....

    Innovative Summary of your Department Continue

    this is a continuation of the last blog where our departments updated the school on the different areas of study or change (Innovation) that was taking place in their area.  This sharing helps our school keep updated, helps in our Individual Goals (so we internally network and share), and helps up help each other.

    In no order of importance, just teachers taking turns, here is what else is happening in our school.

    Physical Education
    • Grade 8 and 9’s together.  Reorganize students in more meaningful ways.  Pooling classes together, with  Separating students on fitness levels.  Students like the variety of options. choices
    • Also doing 2 fitness days per week, culture changed this year.  It was previously scheduled for one day a week.  150 – 160 kids.
    • We have as many as 6 blocks per period.  Sometimes they are leaking out into the hub, but when bad weather it’s worst.
    • Increase in enrollment in Super Fit day.  In the grade 11/12 area.  Women only – get Fit class.   ½ the girls did the Sun Run; it’s a transformation of their life.
    • Assessment piece – digital portfolio, doing interviews, and some portfolios were tangible, but now it’s going tech, towards a blog entry recording their physical fitness development They are embedding videos, links to different sites of interest, with peer, parents and teachers doing the assessment.  Using the Library to do the blogs.  It’s been fast, a bit messy but fun.
    • Looking at going out of the classroom and into the community.  To the aquarium, Play land, ties to the elementary schools (feeder) Grade 2 working with the Grade 12s, interacting with the Grade 12s helping them and then 
    •  The TRU for Grade 11s being entered.  Sent student to the Grade 11 Physics challenge.  Congeniality award.  Ms. Leonard. 
    •  New teachers James Lo and Chris welcomed to the school.
    •  Working with Discovery Education.  Video clips added into students.  Changed common assessment with the different groups together. 
    •   Gill taken on Project Based Learning with a Naming Game.
    • Now also have fish, growing for students to see.
    • Update - oversee events – Costa Rica and to Europe with Science related assignments.

    •  Course selection online.  Grade 10 – 11.  There were not too many glitches but 11 going into 12, it was the students and the time it took them to register. So the 10s got most of the spots for the registration.  So now they understand the process.
    • Tweet scholarship information and various programs for students.  Need teachers to follow @msborasa.

    • Jr. teachers are working towards getting students to the same levels.  Many students at different levels.  The department decided it was more important to get students to master the skills then the grades.  Called “Skills Mastery”.  Taken main concepts, broken into the skills, and judging the mastery of each one.  Doing it conceptually, pictorially, and then it’s an assessment of the skills, only (i.e. skill 1, skill 2, skill 3.).  Marked out of 4.  Top score, showed all.  3 – got what I meant but I did not come up to the right one.  2 – I really tried but I need to work harder.  1 – I tried.   Each skill tested twice about a week to a week and a ½.  To get 5 out of 5, you need to get to a 4 twice.  You need to transfer the skill in different ways.  Three changes, twice in class, one out of class. 
    • New this semester, so working at it.  But you can see a different.  The learning and the passion to learning are greatly improved.  Parents are contacting department, stating that they like where it’s going.
    • Need to make 3 skills test for each concept.
    Tech Education

    • Students did very well in the Skills Canada this year, working almost through the night to make sure their robot worked in everyway.  They took best machines at the provincial in 4 games – seated 4th, and they won the Silver in the finals.
    • Showing Skills Canada video.
    •  Too many kids leaving high school without basic skills.
    •  Skills Canada promotes trades and technology to the next generation to keep the skills up.
    •   Not enough kids are coming into schools with the skills to teach them hand skills. 
    •  Career is working at getting a bus to the Nationals June 5th and 7th in Vancouver.  Looking at sending students to see these skills and be ready for these skills.
    This 20 minute new course has been implemented across the entire school.  It was new this year but it has been growing in development, shape, and form.  J. Helping surveyed a group of students, got feedback from all the grades.  The students valued the time but they expressed concern that some teachers don’t’ understand the concept of discovery time.  They asked what their view of discovery time is and then were asked if this was happening in your classroom.  Are you finding connection, are you making connections?  Many said it was dependent on the teacher’s philosophy.  Some loved what was happening, others not sure.  Yet at the end of the discussion they wanted Discovery Time to continue.

    There will be a survey for the teachers to do, what’s working for them, and what is not working for them.  If the teacher believe in Discovery Time (a time to get to know your students, to be a part of their life, and to follow them through all the grades to make a connection, a mentor in the school) then the students do.  If the teacher doesn’t believe in it,  then the students don’t.

    Every teacher handles Discovery differently, and the dynamics are all different.  Each classroom is different a different grade, different personalities in it and it’s up to the teacher to make the connections.

    There is a problem that was mentioned during our sharing, one that will be considered.  When you are away, some teachers are supposed to cover.  The “Sit and talk “ to the kids doesn’t work with a sub.    Teachers need something that can be handed to the TOC for the sub to make the work.